Useful Tips

Negative sun exposure


Bright summer sunshine is seen only in summer. Every day, when the sky is cloudy, we feel the effect of the sun, not only feel good, but I also look, including covering my face and around my eyes.

Read on for more information on how the sun's rays affect adulthood and how to protect the sun for oily, problem and sensitive skin.

The benefits of sun damage

Sunlight is necessary for man not only for a beautiful tan. It is a source of vitamin D. Without sunlight, vitamin D obtained from food is not digested.

Vitamin Duseful in that:

  • It helps to get potassium ifosphorus, so it affects the strengthening of the bones of the isubes. The lack of "solar vitamin" causes brittle bones, audetaeans can provoke rickets,
  • reduces the likelihood of oncology,
  • normalizes the functioning of the thyroid gland,
  • beneficial effects of minority,
  • reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and blood clots.

Sunflower heals damaged skin faster, but the main thing is not to go too far with modern being in the sun. Then a reverse reaction is possible. It’s good for your health to be in the sun for about a day, with your hands and face open.

The sun emits several types of radiation; moreover, they are almost inactive for the first man. The exception is ultraviolet rays. Protecting itself from UV rays, the skin secretes the pigment melanin, which gives a dark tone. We call this process a tan.

Excessive UV exposure negatively affectsskin condition:

  • causes spots, burns, wrinkles,
  • provokes oncology, there is a risk of skin cancer,
  • prolonged exposure to the active sun threatens sun and heat stroke.

An attempt to achieve an ideal tan can result in serious consequences for a person. How long you can stay in the sun without a protective agent depends on the photo type, which includes all such characteristics as skin tone, eye color and hair.

How to behave in the sun

To avoid negative consequences, you need to follow simple rules:

  1. Do not sunbathe in open sunlight when they are as active as possible, i.e. from 11.00 to 16.00. At this time of the day, it is preferable to stay on time.
  2. If you need to be exposed to bright sunshine, put on a hat and sunglasses. The hat will prevent overheating of the head and reduce the risk of sunstroke. Athletic glasses will block bright light, which negatively affects the eye and is capable of causing glaucoma.
  3. Drink water. This will prevent overheating of the body and overdrying of the skin.
  4. Use sunscreen.

Exposure to Sun Rays - Photodermatitis

A sunburn (photodermatitis) can happen in any person, even a dark one from birth. The exception is only the representatives of the black race.

It all depends on the activity of the sun and the duration of exposure.

Sun exposure

People are divided into 5 phototypes.

  1. The first (Celtic). If your skin is very light, quickly reddens, burns, you have a lot of freckles, your hair is light or light red. You belong to the first type. It is better for such people not to sunbathe in the open sun and be sure to use sunscreen.
  2. Fair-skinned European. If the skin is light, tans a little, but often burns, a little freckles, blond eyes and blond hair, then you are the owner of the second type.
  3. Black European. If your skin is fair, it rarely burns, your hair is brown, brown, your eyes are gray and brown, then you are of the third type.
  4. Mediterranean. If your skin is dark, easily tans, brown eyes, dark hair, then your group is the fourth.
  5. The fifth group is negroid. Such skin easily tolerates large doses of ultraviolet radiation.

How does a sunburn manifest? Like simple dermatitis: redness, pain, burning in areas exposed to direct sunlight (lesions have clear outlines). With a more pronounced reaction, bubbles appear. If the lesion is large, then the temperature may rise, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, chills.

How to prevent the harmful effects of sunlight?

To avoid sunburn, you must comply with the measure. True, it is difficult to do this, when I escaped into nature for several days, I want the sea, sun, brown tan.

In this case, you need to think and remember that tomorrow the vacation history may end and the history of the disease begins. Therefore, determine your phototype, apply adequate safety measures, and always remember that graduation is needed in the tanning process. Burnt skin slazes and beauty in this case does not work.

How to cure a sunburn?

What should I do if my skin is burned?

Need anti-inflammatory treatment and detoxification. Be sure to take antihistamines (zirtec, zodak, clarithin, etc.), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, nurofen, paracetamol, aspirin), and for severe burns, corticosteroids (intramuscular dexamethasone).

Locally, funds with panthenol (panthenol, bepantol) will help you with a small lesion of local corticosteroids (Spray Beloderm Express, for example).

Do not grease with sour cream and butter.

The victim must drink plenty of fluids and light protein foods (dairy products, eggs), vegetables, fruits.


There are two types of ultraviolet radiation: UVA and UVB. The first affects the deep levels of the skin, starting the aging process: wrinkles and age spots appear, the skin becomes less elastic. The second type of rays affects the outer layer of the skin, which with prolonged exposure is fraught with burns.

The ultraviolet cream that you select should protect against any type of radiation. On the packaging will be indicated: SPF and UBA. The short UVB rays that cause sunburn protect the creams with a sun protection factor of 15 to 50 SPF. This number means how many times the duration of a skin-friendly stay in the sun will increase. If without any protection in the sun, the skin begins to turn red after 20 minutes, then with a screams, the sun-protection factor of which is 15, the time of a safe stay in the sun is extended up to 5 hours. However, the cream is absorbed at once, and every 2 hours it needs to be updated.

But it is not necessary to give preference to the cream with the maximum number of SPF. Moreover, do not pay attention to funds whose SPF 100— such markings do not exist, this is a manipulation of marketers.

The same abbreviations refer to dark glasses. Sunglasses are a difficult decorative element. In order for them to really protect your eyes, you need to choose glasses that are protected from certain types of ultraviolet rays (UVA and UVB), which do not transmit a wavelength of up to 400 nanometers (UV400).

The best sunscreen is the one that's right for you. The characteristics of the necessary sunscreen first of all depend on the faded phototype. Determines how resistant the skin is to sun exposure.

  1. Blond hair, needle skin. This phototype dislikes the sun. Staying in open sunlight for more than 10 minutes causes burns. A protective cream from SPF-30 is required.
  2. Light brown hair, gray eyes, fair skin, possibly with bumps, skin. To not burn, creams are recommended with a number of SPF from 10 to 20.
  3. Dark hair, brown eyes and skin with a slight dark tint. Requires funds from 6 to 15SPF.
  4. Dark hair, eyes and dark skin. There is no risk of burns, but you can use cSPF-8 cream for prevention.

Children's skin is especially exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, children need a protective agent against SPF-30.

What funds to buy: creams or sprays? It does not matter. The type of packaging affects only the application process. If you need a sunscreen to relax, try waterproof creams or sprays.

The product should be applied at least 20 minutes before reaching the street, so that it can be absorbed into the skin. Otherwise, it will be ineffective. All parts of the body must be protected. Unforgettable lips. There is no need to save money: the norm of an adult is the palm of a cream.

After the received ultraviolet radiation, you should take a shower and apply moisturizers with SvitaminE or lotions for the skin of the face of Itel. When choosing a remedy, be guided by positive reviews.

To obtain a uniform tan or to fix a bronze skin tone, it is more effective to use sunblock oil. It attracts ultraviolet rays, thereby accelerating the process of sunbathing. Essential fatty acids moisturize the skin and reduce the risk of dehydration. Oils also have a sun protection factor.

The difference is that they are greasy, they leave greasy stains on clothes. For this reason, the product must be applied directly on the beach, but after that it is advisable to sit for minutes.

Caution should choose tanning oil for people with an oily skin type. An improperly selected cream can clog pores.

Folk remedies

Natural tanning oil

Cosmetic oils for tanning are a complex composition, so they can protect the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation from people with fair skin. People with dark skin or who are already well tanned can use natural oils. They do not contain artificial components, but they have a low sun protection factor — from 2 to 8SPF.

Coconut, argan, jojoba, sesame, macadamia, and shea butter are used as a natural tanning stimulant. Olive oil also has this property, but it leaves a greenish tint on the skin.

DIY sunscreen

Sunscreen can be made by yourself. In order to make a waterproof remedy at home, you will need the following ingredients:

  • 1/2 tbsp. almond oil
  • 1 / 4st. coconut oil
  • 1 / 4st. beeswax
  • 2 tablespoons of zinc oxide (nenano),
  • 2 tablespoons maslashis,
  • less than 1 tsp red raspberry seed oil,
  • less than 1 tsp carrot seed oil,
  • less than 1 tsp Vitamin E oils

1. In a glass jar we mix all components except zinc oxide. With this substance, it is necessary to work only in a mask that protects the respiratory system.

2. Pour an average pan of water at a level of about 5cm separate. Heat on medium heat.

3. Place the jar in the jar with the single ingredients covered with a lid.

4. When the components in the bank become liquid, miscible. Pour in zinc oxide.

5. We move the resulting mixture to the capacity in which we will store the cream.

6. When the cream has cooled, mix it again.

Store the finished product in a dry and cool place. Shelf life is six months.

If you are still charred, after a wet compress at room temperature, it is necessary to lubricate the damaged area of ​​the skin with a restoring agent. With sunburn, Panthenol Spray with dexpanthenol has proven itself well. Unlike analogues, which are cosmetics, it is a certified drug. It does not contain parabens, making it safe for both adults and children from the first day of life. It is convenient to apply - just spray it onto the skin without rubbing it. Panthenol Spray is produced on the territory of the European Union, in compliance with high European quality standards. You can find out the original Panthenol Spray by the emoticon next to the name on the package.

Home remedy forsunburn

A restorative can be made with your own hands. We take cold fresh potatoes. Three hints of grater. The resulting slurry is put on burnt skin. You can add sour cream or sour cream to the mask. When the mask warms up to the body temperature, remove the skin composition. Potatoes can be replaced with cucumber.

In a first-aid kit, it’s good to have a restorative ointment or gel, for example, Special ointment, which, in addition to healing damaged skin, relieves pain and has an antiseptic effect.

Exposure to sunlight - phototoxic and photoallergic reactions

This is a more complex topic than an ordinary sunburn, since the situation can be very different and not always solvable.

These are reactions associated with an increase in the photosensitivity of the skin and mucous membranes (sensitivity increases both to solar radiation and to artificial ultraviolet) when applied locally or if certain substances get inside.

Sun exposure

Such substances are called photosensitizing (that is, increasing sensitivity to light). They can be in the composition of medicines, food products, various parts of plants, perfumes and cosmetics, fuels and lubricants, etc.

Photosensitivity can be the result of processes occurring in the body (metabolic disorders, intoxication, autoimmune diseases).

Phototoxic reactions are not an allergy. They are associated with the chemical formula of a substance - a photosensitizer. If a molecule of a substance under the influence of light loses stability, then free radicals are formed, which destroy cell membranes, and in some cases the DNA of cells.

As a result of this, inflammation appears, which in appearance is like a burn. All people are prone to phototoxic reactions, regardless of phototype.

Photoallergic reactions are immunological mediated reactions of the type antigen (allergen) - an antibody.

An allergen in this case is a light-activated photosensitizing substance that binds to proteins in the skin. Such reactions occur as a response of the immune system to light in the presence of even negligible amounts of causative substance only in people with allergies.

The picture does not resemble a sunburn, but eczema or allergic dermatitis. Rashes are bubbly, which open with the release of a clear liquid. When they dry, a crust forms. The process is accompanied by itching and burning.

Mostly affected areas are exposed. But the rash can spread and damage to the mucous membranes is possible.

Possible: nausea, heart pain, headache, fever. With prolonged inflammation, the skin becomes denser, its pattern becomes underlined, due to prolonged expansion of the capillaries, blood stagnates and foci acquire a bluish-pink color.

The severity of skin and general reactions can be diverse and depends on various factors.

What can cause negative exposure to sunlight?

What medications can cause photosensitivity?

Most often, photosensitizing (increasing the body's sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation) effect is exerted by:

  • tetracycline antibiotics (tetracycline, doxycycline, unidox),
  • fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin),
  • sulfa drugs
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ketoprofen, ibuprofen, naproxen, etc.),
  • diuretics (furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide),
  • antifungal agents (griseofulvin, itraconazole),
  • combined oral contraceptives, retinoids (acitretin, isotretinoin),
  • tar,
  • para-aminobenzoic acid,
  • dapson.

Moreover, the medicine gets inside or is used locally not fundamentally. It is necessary to carefully read the instructions, there must be indicated a side effect.

The harmful effects of sunlight

Caution with makeup!

Some types of cosmetics make the skin more sensitive to UV radiation, for example, substances that act as antibacterials in the cream, anti-acne products, and perfumed soap.

Perfumes, colognes containing furocoumarins from natural sources such as plants, fruits, natural oils (bergamot, lavender, lemon, rosemary, sandalwood) can also cause negative exposure to sunlight.

Musk ambergris, used to make after-shave products, colognes, can also cause skin reactions to ultraviolet light.

Some cosmetics may contain dyes that can cause reactions under the influence of ultraviolet radiation.

For example, the following dyes:

  • Eosin (lipstick, lip gloss),
  • erythrosine
  • fluorescein,
  • methylene blue
  • violet
  • neutral red
  • Bengal pink
  • toluidine blue,
  • tripaflavin
  • trypan blue.

Therefore, choosing cosmetics during the period of intense exposure to sunlight on the skin, you must definitely pay attention to the composition.

Before tanning, the skin should be clean, and with prolonged exposure to the sun, sunscreen should be used.

It should also be noted that food products also contain the dyes listed above.

What else causes the harmful effects of sunlight?

What foods and plants can enhance photosensitivity?

  1. Food products containing furocoumarins and related substances (figs, grapefruit, some citrus fruits, parsley root, dill).
  2. Carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruits (carrots, pumpkins, peppers, parsnips).
  3. Some medicinal plants, especially those from the root and umbelliferous family (angelica officinalis, wild carrots, dental ammoni, medicinal sweet clover, clover, ginkgo biloba, green onion, garlic, agave).
  4. Растения, содержащие антрагликозиды, например, зверобой продырявленный, алоэ, щавель конский.

Летом лучше данные растения не применять или использовать очень осторожно.

Как защититься от вредного воздействия солнечных лучей?

To protect yourself from the negative effects of sunlight, you need to know simple rules.

  1. Avoid direct sunlight. In dangerous times, from 10 to 16 hours wear a hat.
  2. Drink plenty of water (10 glasses).
  3. Use sunscreens regularly.

How to protect yourself from the sun?

  1. Every time you sunbathe, the skin is damaged and its aging accelerates.
  2. Avoid shiny lipsticks, they can enhance the effects of UV rays.
  3. Up to 80% of ultraviolet rays can pass through the clouds and damage the skin. Therefore, sunscreen should be applied in warm time, even on cloudy days.
  4. The type B rays do not let the glass pass, but the type A rays that penetrate deep into the skin let the glass pass. Therefore, being in a room where the sun's rays fall, dermatologists recommend using a waterproof sunscreen with a degree of protection of at least 30.
  5. If it is written on the cream that it is waterproof, then it acts in water for about 40 minutes. Any sunscreen should be applied every two hours, regardless of contact with water.
  6. A beach umbrella does not protect against rays reflected from the sand, so protective creams must be used.
  7. UV rays pass through light fabrics more easily, so you protect yourself if you wear blue, black or red, orange. Dense fabrics protect better than transparent ones.
  8. Protect your eyes! Ultraviolet rays can cause cataracts, a sunburn of the cornea. Light glasses protect no worse than dark ones. The main thing is high protection - UV 400.

Conclusion: to avoid the harmful effects of sunlight, follow simple rules, wear a hat with large brim, apply a sunscreen with a high degree of protection every two hours and drink plenty of water.