Chicken pox (chickenpox) is a viral disease that causes itchy skin rashes that usually affects children under the age of 15. Most often, chickenpox affects children aged 5 to 9 years. The vaccination, which began in the mid-90s, now helps protect people from becoming infected with this disease. However, if you have not yet been ill with this infection and have not been vaccinated, you need to know what measures to take in order not to get chickenpox when you are caring for the patient.
Chicken pox can be infected by airborne droplets (in some cases, by direct contact with the liquid from the bubbles). Consider several implementations of this transmission mechanism:
|Is it possible to get chickenpox||Characteristic|
|On the street|
|Through a third party||Infection with chickenpox through a third party is impossible - it occurs directly from a sick person to a healthy one.|
|In the incubation period||The incubation period itself, on average, lasts from 10 to 20 days. As you know, a person is contagious only from the moment that bubble rashes begin to appear on the body. Infection can occur only from this period of time.|
|From child to adult||If an adult has not previously had chickenpox, the risk of infection from a child is great.|
|From vaccinated||Scientists have proven that the vaccine virus is not detected in the blood or nasopharynx of vaccinees. It can be concluded that infection from the vaccinated is almost impossible.|
|Through objects or things|
Those who contacted patients are interested in how much they get infected with chickenpox? If infection has occurred, the first signs are observed within 10-20 days.
How and why does chickenpox infection occur?
The source of the disease is a sick person during the formation of the rash. It is not necessary to meet the patient himself, it is enough to get a droplet of saliva floating out in the air when coughing or talking with a live virus.
The cause of the disease is the spread of chickenpox virus on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, where it immediately invades the epithelial cell, multiplies and travels to the lymph nodes with a blood stream, and then throughout the body.
How to detect chickenpox virus?
Most carry chickenpox in kindergarten, the susceptibility to an infectious agent is almost 96%, so chickenpox is very rare in adults, and its course is mostly atypical. Symptoms are either too pronounced or almost not expressed, just not a classic version.
Often the infection is taken for an allergic reaction, when no bubbles appear, the process stops at the stage of spots. Often, symptoms of severe intoxication come to the fore, with the rash being subtle. Concomitant chronic diseases and age-related decline in immunity aggravate the general reaction.
Infectionists at the Medicine 24/7 clinic diagnose pathology and help cope with symptoms that worsen the quality of life.
The time from infection to the onset of the first symptoms of the disease takes 10 to 21 days, but more often falls within 2 weeks.
The disease begins acutely, at the beginning - the prodromal period - takes about two days. There are no characteristic symptoms at the onset of chickenpox, just intoxication. But in every third adult, the disease begins with severe manifestations: fever, headache, nausea, abdominal and lower back pain.
In some cases, the first symptoms of chickenpox can be catarrhal symptoms: sore throat, runny nose and dry cough.
The most characteristic sign of chickenpox
This is a rash that occurs on non-inflamed skin. First, a rapidly growing speck appears, the middle of it gradually rises, and a bubble grows in it, like a dewdrop. The liquid in it soon becomes cloudy, and already on the 3rd day a crust forms. Bubbles of different sizes, from point to centimeter. The bubble does not necessarily grow; it may remain in the speck stage.
New bubbles appear in several stages, no more than four such waves with a break of a day or two, and regularly “sprinkle” with new ones for about a week. For the entire period of the rash, it takes no more than 3 weeks, on the third, crusts form mainly. There are no scars left.
Where can a chickenpox rash appear?
First, on the trunk and limbs, but not on the palms and feet, and then on the face and head. In the mouth, it also happens, causing chewing pain and salivation, the vesicles open easily, forming erosion, which heal in 3 days. Bubbles also appear on the genital mucosa. Papules also grow in the eye, are tolerated quite easily, the vesicle quickly opens, forming a sore that passes in a couple of days without a trace.
In the clinic Medicine 24/7, an examination is carried out on high-precision equipment, which allows you to quickly make the correct diagnosis and immediately begin treatment.
What other symptoms are common with chickenpox?
When a rash forms, the temperature rises, the rash goes in waves and the fever also waves, but the temperature rarely lasts more than 5 days. With an extremely profuse rash, fever and drowsiness, convulsions and loss of consciousness are possible. The rash, of course, is itchy.
Almost half of the neck and submandibular areas are enlarged lymph nodes, which is almost not found in children. The well-being of adults suffers more than in children, and the severity of clinical manifestations is more intense.
How does the infection usually go?
Mild course with a few rashes, normal or briefly rising to 38 ° C temperature, bubbles pass in 3 days.
With a moderate infection with temperatures up to 39 ° C, abundant skin formations disappear in 5 days.
Severe chickenpox is noted in patients weakened by chronic diseases, a fresh rash lasts for almost a week, a serious condition with severe symptoms of intoxication.
If the condition worsens, you should immediately contact the infectious disease specialist, who leads the reception without days off and holidays in the clinic "Medicine 24/7". Recording is carried out around the clock by phone +7 (495) 230-00-01. Early initiation of special therapy will avoid irreparable consequences.
How else can an infection go?
In adults, atypical forms are more common. So, during treatment with an immunoglobulin of an adult in contact with a patient, which is practiced with an unconditional probability of developing the disease, the symptoms of chickenpox are almost not expressed and this option is called erased.
In patients with severe chronic processes, tumors, or after transplantation, on the contrary, severe forms of the type of gangrene of the vesicles develop, with huge blisters - bullous, hemorrhagic with hemorrhages in the vesicles - in case of blood diseases. The generalized form flows very hard, when a rash forms even in the internal organs.
When is a patient considered cured?
Not before he feels recovering, but according to medical criteria:
- The patient should not have a skin rash and the mucous membranes are also clean.
- There are no signs of intoxication.
- At least three days the temperature should be normal.
- Blood test without abnormalities.
Most people suffer from chickenpox in childhood, in adults the infection is much more difficult than in children who feel well and active even during the heyday of the disease.
The Clinic "Medicine 24/7" uses the most effective domestic and foreign methods of therapy, which can significantly improve the quality of life of our patients and maintain their activity. Get help from a specialist at our medical center by calling +7 (495) 230-00-01
The reason for the development of chickenpox is a virus from a small family of herpes viruses, it was designated as type 3. On the one hand, it is very delicate and does not withstand not only ultraviolet radiation, but also just sunlight.
Antiseptic treatment of the surfaces in the patient’s room is not required, because the virus gets on them leads to its death, but in the cold it remains for a long time and is easily restored after freezing. At the same time, the viral particle is very volatile and flies from person to person on particles of saliva.
Who is resistant to viral infection?
Chicken pox is a surprising infection by the degree of adherence, and therefore the majority suffers it in childhood. For some time, the newborn remains protected from his mother's chickenpox, which has long been sick, the reason for this resistance is the antiviral antibodies that the baby received that circulated in the pregnant woman’s bloodstream. As soon as the antibodies are destroyed, the child will become defenseless.
Immunity after the disease is characterized as stable, almost lifelong, however, in rare cases, repeated illness is possible. The fact is that the viral particle settles in the nerve nodes - the ganglia, and even after a few years it can cause shingles or even chickenpox, and the antibodies circulating in the blood do not cause trouble to the suddenly activated type 3 herpes virus.
Only a qualified infectious disease doctor is able to quickly make a differential diagnosis and identify the cause of the pathological condition. Sometimes it is necessary to resort to modern diagnostic methods. All this is possible in the clinic "Medicine 24/7".
Cause of infection: how is the disease transmitted from person to person?
It is unlikely that the cause of chickenpox can be a contact transmission route - through touching the patient. But the viral particle is perfectly transmitted by airborne droplets using an aerosol, which is formed in the air from the smallest droplets of saliva during coughing and talking to a sick person.
In the smallest droplets of saliva, live infectious agents float, they believe that through the ventilation system the infection spreads in the same way, because one patient is enough for an apartment building, and all residents who do not have immunity will get sick.
If a disease occurs, you should immediately contact a specialist who conducts weekends and holidays at the Medicine 24/7 clinic. Earlier initiation of therapy will avoid irreparable consequences.
Why do spots and blisters form on the skin?
The main manifestation of chickenpox is a characteristic skin lesion. The chickenpox has a tropism for the skin, the first thing it rushes in, is introduced into the cells and multiplies. While the particle is in the cell, the body reacts to the disorder with the formation of an inflammatory shaft: the vessels expand nearby, through which immune cells actively come, filled with biologically active substances that dissolve all foreign substances. In general, inflammatory edema develops.
A fertile enemy agent and immune defenders together cause cell death. In place of the dead cell, a cavity forms, which is filled with the surrounding inflammatory fluid, which exfoliates the surface layer of the skin. So from a speck a bubble forms.
When is the patient contagious to others?
The period from the penetration of an infectious agent to the development of symptoms of the disease with chickenpox lasts no more than 3 weeks. But already in the last few days of incubation in the body of an infected person, viruses multiply and release them into the surrounding space. At this time, the person does not yet know about his illness, but he is already able to cause infection of other people a day before the appearance of rashes.
At the time of the appearance of new skin manifestations of chickenpox, a person is a source of infection. When new bubbles no longer appear, but crusts still remain, the person is no longer dangerous and may well be in contact with people. On average, the entire period of nucleation and maturation of the blisters lasts about a week, but in adults weakened by concomitant diseases, the infection can occur atypically, long and hard.
The specialists of the Medicine 24/7 clinic always take into account not only the individual characteristics of the disease, but also the possibilities and interests of each patient so that the treatment is as comfortable as possible and really improves the quality of life. If you are not healthy, accidentally contacted with the source of infection, or an infectious patient appeared in the family, call: +7 (495) 230-00-01
Chicken pox is transmitted by the unusually volatile type 3 herpes virus. In the medical literature, a high probability of transmission is indicated as 96% virulence, but in life it looks like this: if a chickenpox appeared in the stairwell of a house, then everyone who has not been ill before will get sick.
Is it always necessary to take a test for chickenpox?
Diagnosis is simple, and often it is not necessary to take tests to identify the causative agent of the infection. Chicken pox has very characteristic clinical manifestations, so the diagnosis is carried out by an infectious disease doctor according to the symptoms.
A high degree of transmission also speaks in favor of infection, in most cases it is possible to trace where the infection came from. Diagnosis of the pathogen may be required in the atypical course of the disease, when the manifestations are either less or more pronounced and do not look like chickenpox.
What diagnostic methods can a doctor prescribe for chickenpox?
With any infectious process in the general analysis of blood, changes are noted, and with chickenpox, too, but there are no specific manifestations specific to this disease. In most cases, there is an acceleration of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate - ESR.
To identify the pathogen, take the contents of the bubble or scraping the fingerprint from erosion, after special silvering under microscopy, clusters of viruses or giant cells with many nuclei are determined. With an atypical form, manifested by catarrhal changes in the throat, these reactions also perform.
With the help of test systems, antibodies to the virus in the blood are detected by molecular biological methods, this is called a serological study. As a rule, diagnostics are performed in severe cases, although the severity of the changes does not correlate with the severity of the disease.
An infectious disease specialist at the Medicine 24/7 clinic, possessing an extensive clinical horizon, has at his disposal the most advanced diagnostic methods and equipment with the ability to perform complex analyzes, which affects the favorable prognosis for the patient.
What diseases can chickenpox manifestations be like?
Differential diagnosis of chickenpox is carried out with other processes in which skin changes also occur in combination with symptoms of intoxication. First of all, with SARS and herpes infections: generalized herpes and cytomegalovirus infection.
They are looking for differences from pustular skin lesions - streptoderma and dangerous animal infections - foot and mouth disease, and other infections.
Only a qualified specialist with wide diagnostic capabilities is able to quickly make a differential diagnosis and identify the cause of the pathological condition, and all this is possible in the infection center "Medicine 24/7".
How not to get chickenpox
Many adults do not know if they had chickenpox in childhood? For this reason, it is better not to take risks and take measures that will help to avoid the disease. The most dangerous chickenpox virus is for pregnant women, young children (up to one year old) and the elderly.
Consider how to avoid the disease:
The first trimester is considered the most difficult period during pregnancy - during this time, various diseases are especially dangerous.
Since vaccination against chickenpox during pregnancy is prohibited, the only way out is to avoid contact with those who have chickenpox.
Pregnant in contact with the patient, if it is inevitable, it is necessary to constantly wear a medical mask. Change the mask every 2 hours.
Ребенка до одного года необходимо оградить от больных ветрянкой – они тяжело переносят заболевание. По возможности мама с малышом должна покинуть дом на время, пока больной не выздоровит. К сожалению, такая возможность есть не у всех.
Ребенок младше 1 года должен находиться в одной комнате, куда запрещен доступ больному. It is advisable to quartz the room, as ultraviolet deactivates the virus very quickly. Since vaccination against chickenpox is allowed for use from 1 year, there are no other options to protect the baby.
Due to reduced immunity, older people can easily get chickenpox. How can an elderly person not get chickenpox? After all, the disease is as dangerous for the elderly as it is for newborns - chickenpox is severe and can cause complications.
To avoid chickenpox in old age, you can put a vaccine that will protect against infection.
How can an adult not get chickenpox from a child?
Usually this nuisance arises if the child has chickenpox, and one of the parents did not have it in childhood. Consider the available precautions:
- Insulation. Isolating the source of infection is the most effective way to protect yourself from infection. If possible, parents take the child to relatives, provided that they have been ill with this disease.
- Hygiene. An infected chickenpox should have separate dishes. Bed linen of all family members must be washed at a temperature of 90 degrees.
- Quartzing. If the family has a quartz lamp, this will help reduce the spread of the virus and germs. Please note that the lamp must be used in accordance with the instructions.
- Medical mask. In contact with the patient, all family members must move around the house in a medical mask. In this case, the risk of infection is reduced by about 30%.
- Quarantine. Patients with chickenpox should be in the same room, which from time to time must be ventilated and turn on a quartz lamp.
It should be noted that there are no medications for the prevention of chickenpox. Therefore, taking antibiotics or antiviral drugs in this case is not relevant. There are two main types of prevention:
- Vaccination. And the human body is injected with a vaccine with a weakened pathogen. After vaccination, chickenpox may develop in a mild form. Sometimes the disease proceeds without visible features. After vaccination, the body develops a stable immunity to this pathogen, as a result of which infection with chickenpox becomes impossible.
- Immunity strengthening. If a person leads a healthy lifestyle, eats properly, goes in for sports and does not have bad habits, thus the immunity is strengthened. Good immunity is more effective in coping with various viruses and infections. This helps to avoid the severe course of the disease and the appearance of complications ..
Opinion of Dr. Komarovsky
Dr. Komarovsky believes that chickenpox is an inevitable disease. Only pregnant women need to “hide” from chickenpox. It is quite difficult for an infant to get chickenpox, since the baby's body independently produces antibodies that prevent the virus from developing in the body.
The most effective protective measure is vaccination. Pregnant women need to take care of this before planning a pregnancy.