Scientific-practical conference of primary school students of the Lakhdenpohsky municipal district "First Steps"
How to make paper out
Alexandrova Arina Andreevna,
3rd grade student
Municipal Budgetary Institution “Raivattalskaya Secondary School”, settlement of Hiitola, Lahdenpohsky district of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Korhonen Svetlana Fedorovna, primary school teacher at the Raivattalskaya secondary school,
1.1 Origin of paper four
1.2.Papermaking technology. five
1.3. What is waste paper. …………… .6
2.1. Properties of paper (experiments 1-3). ……………………………. 7
2.2. Ecological experience “Production of colored paper from waste paper”. eight
4. References. 9
Once, with my younger sister, I made an application at home - a gift for mom. There was not enough paper. We asked our mother: “Can you somehow make colored paper yourself?” So the topic of research work that we conducted in the technology lesson arose.
The purpose of the study: to increase interest in protecting the environment and the conservation of our forests.
We set ourselves the following tasks:
- Analyze the information and draw a poster “Where did the paper come from?”
- To get acquainted with the technological process of paper making at the enterprise,
- To study the properties of paper based on practical work (conducting experiments),
- Conduct a study “Making colored paper from old newspapers”.
Hypothesis: if we learn how paper is made at the enterprise, we can make it at home.
Analysis of literature, Internet resources, experience, practical work, research.
Simple paper fresh sheet!
You are white as chalk. Do not crumple and clean.
Your surface yet
No one's hand is touched.
What will you become! When what
Will you be scribbled by hand?
To whom and what will you bring-
Love? Separation? The truth? Lying?
Do you lie goodbye to the table?
Or do you go to the protocol?
Or the poet will crush you
Barren of dawn?
No, another fate awaits you!
once a color pencil
go through the whole sheet
Its filling the void.
And the sky will be blue.
And the steamer will be red.
And black in the sky will be smoke
And the sun will be golden.
So it's time to reveal all the secrets. In preparation for today's speech, I found these words of Alisher Navoi about paper: "Paper is the wings on which the thoughts of the sages are spread throughout the world."
1.1. Origin of paper
I began my work by studying the issue of the origin and appearance of paper. The paper was not always. For millennia, people have been looking for writing material. At first they used stone, clay, bark of trees. They were replaced by wooden planks covered with wax. They were replaced by papyrus, which is sometimes called the "grandfather of paper." Papyrus is a plant with a rigid hollow stem, which was cut and straightened - thin sheets were obtained on which to write. From the Egyptian word papyrus, the name of the paper came from many peoples: the Germans - “papyr”, the British - “paper”, the Spaniards - “panel”. The Russian word paper comes from the Italian "bambaggio", which means "cotton". The first raw materials for paper after papyrus were rags made of cotton fabrics. The exact date when the paper appeared has not been indicated by any historian.
The first paper began to make the Chinese. Paper was invented in China in about 105 by Cai Lun. He found a way to make paper from the fibrous inside of a mulberry bark. The Chinese for a long time rubbed tree bark, slivers, rags in water until porridge without lumps turned out, then they poured this mixture on trays, at the bottom of which there were long narrow strips of bamboo. When the water drained, the soft sheets were laid to dry on a flat surface. For this purpose, used bamboo and old rags. Later, someone figured out how to improve the quality of paper by adding starch to it.
They made paper by hand, using the most primitive technique. For the day received no more than 100-120 kilograms. With the development of paper printing, more was needed. Rags, which were collected by thousands of people, were not enough. And then they decided to try the tree. The experiment was a success - the wood was split into individual fibers and turned into pulp. Since then, and produce paper from wood.
The Chinese made a secret how to make paper. The death penalty relied on his disclosure. Nevertheless, the secret was revealed. Once the Arabs defeated the Chinese army and captured the captives. They tried a method of making paper from captured Chinese. According to the Chinese method, paper began to be made in Korea in the 6th century, and in Japan in the 7th century. Japanese paper surpassed Chinese in quality, the Japanese produced about 300 different types of paper. Paper gradually spread across the globe from country to country: in the 8th century it was in Baghdad, in the 13th century in Venice. Paper conquered Europe around the sixteenth century. In the eighteenth century, Peter I made a great contribution to the production of paper: by his decree several paper mills were built.
Conclusion: From our study it is clear that the path of the paper is very winding and difficult.
- Paper Technology.
Now the world produces over 300 million tons of paper and cardboard per year, which is about 50.8 kg per person.
Stage 1. The path of paper begins in endless forests. From the forest plot, the trees go to the paper mill, where they are transferred to sawing tables. In the blink of an eye, centuries-old trunks turn into meter-long pieces of chocks and are cleaned of bark in drums. 60-ton millstones turn them into wood pulp. Thus ends the first stage, which is called mechanical.
2 stage. Cellulose and fillers, sulfur, soda, lime, kaolin — high quality white clay — are added to the wood pulp. They give the paper whiteness, density, smoothness and good printability.
3 stage. The prepared paper pulp is diluted with water and poured through a seven-meter gap into a waste conveyor at a speed of 750 meters per minute, dried, rolled and turned into paper.
4th stage. Finishing is in progress. The paper web is shaped into finished products - sheets, rolls. This is such a long way paper goes.
Waste paper - waste from the production, processing and consumption of all types of paper and cardboard, suitable for further use as fibrous raw materials.
For the manufacture of 1 ton of paper you need 5.6 m 3 of wood. These are approximately 17 trees. And from 1 ton of paper you can make about 30 thousand ordinary student notebooks.
2.1 Paper Properties
Paper is an artificial material invented and created by people from those that they find in the environment. Having done the experiments, we tried to answer the following questions:
• Why does wet paper tear much easier than dry paper?
• Why does newsprint turn from white to yellow over time?
• Why is white paper stained with colored pencils and what happens to it?
Experiment 1. I took a strip of paper, cut it in half, left one part dry and the other wetted with water. To the bottom of the dry strip, carefully hung an object weighing 200 grams. The strip withstands. If you wet the paper - it spills out.
Conclusion: we found that the composition of the paper pulp fillers contains glue. The faster it dissolves in the water in which we wet the paper, the faster the fibers of the wood of which the paper is made, sprawl, as they cease to be connected.
Experience 2. I took a newspaper from white paper and put it on the windowsill so that the sun would fall on it. I watched the paper for 5 days. Why did the paper turn yellow?
Conclusion: We faced a difficult problem: to find out why newsprint turns from white to yellow. Having worked with encyclopedias, we discussed this issue and found that this experiment with yellowing of paper is unique in the sense that in this case oxygen does not behave like in other reactions, but in the opposite way, since oxygen usually brightens colors. For the manufacture of newsprint, raw materials of yellow color are used. Chemicals that remove oxygen are added to it, and therefore the paper loses its yellowness. When we put the newspaper on the windowsill, the sun's rays heated the air and forced oxygen to combine with the substances contained in the paper. Due to the addition of oxygen, the paper returned to its original yellow color. Therefore, after a while, the newspaper turns yellow.
Experience 3. All children love to color with crayons. Why is paper colored with colored pencils, what happens to it?
Conclusion: Coloring the paper with colored pencils, we noticed that we inject finely grated graphite into the pores of the sheet. Our assumptions were confirmed in an article from the encyclopedia of the surrounding world, where it is written that there are pores in sheets of paper.
2.2. Ecological experience “Production of colored paper from waste paper”.
For this we need: old newspapers, wire mesh, moisture-absorbing cloth, two cups, a wooden spoon, a plastic bag, a load (for example, heavy books).
Stages of making paper from waste paper:
1. Soak the old newspaper in a bowl.
3. Using a mixer or a wooden spoon, turn the soaked paper into a homogeneous mass.
4. To get colored paper, add a little ink to the mass.
5. Transfer the mass to another bowl and add water.
6. Lower the wire mesh into which the future paper will settle.
7. Lay a piece of fabric on a smooth, flat surface. Quickly and carefully transfer the paper pulp mesh onto it and lay it down.
8. Firmly press the net and carefully remove. The paper pulp should remain on the fabric.
9. Cover the mass with a second piece of fabric and press firmly.
10. Cover with plastic wrap, put a load on top.
11. After a few hours, when the mass is already paper, carefully remove the sheets and place them on newspapers for complete drying.
12. You can use dried paper.
The hypothesis that we posed at the beginning of our study was confirmed. We were able to produce a sheet of colored paper. I liked to perform various experiments with paper. I did not even think that making paper is a very time-consuming process. I would like now to resume the collection of waste paper. After all, you can save a huge number of trees.
1. Spargen R. Encyclopedia of the world. Ecology - M.: Rosmen, 1997.
2. The popular encyclopedia for children “Everything about Everything” Volume 1 (200), 4 (455), 6 (477), 9 (129,431), 13 (382), Ast, Moscow, 1998.
What is produced from waste paper
From waste paper, and more precisely from products of its processing produce:
- Actually, paper. Craft, writing, newspaper.
- Toilet paper, napkins, paper towels.
- Cardboard boxes and cardboard. Boxes for eggs.
- Disposable tableware.
- Building materials, such as ecowool - sprayed insulation or roofing cardboard.
- Fabric for clothes - viscose.
- Some other products.
Waste paper products
Reception of waste paper
Waste paper begins its journey at the reception point, where people who are interested in some income bring it. At the pick-up point, you can install a press for cardboard or other paper. Since paper takes up a lot of space, such equipment will not be out of place, you can see options for such equipment on the Netmus.ru website.
Small waste paper collection point
Classification of waste paper by quality
All waste paper is divided into 3 main groups and each is divided into 3-6 grades, in total 13.
The main groups are waste paper of high quality, medium and low. The highest grades are waste paper for printing, drawing, drawing (not dyed) paper, in general, everything that does not require special difficulties in processing, removing paint, removing any kind of waterproofing and reinforcing (for example, waterproofing should be removed from some paper bags and reinforcement). Basically, the highest grade includes waste from production rather than consumption. The lower grades are painted products or with the presence of waterproofing, reinforcement and the like, which are difficult to process.
For example, books, magazines, used notebooks, etc. are included in the middle group B, 7th grade, and the newspapers are already group B, 8th grade.
Waste paper, basically, just the 7th grade
First of all, waste paper is sorted by brand. This is mainly done manually, and the automation of such a process is a complex complex that is difficult to reproduce, because to teach the machine to distinguish between types of paper, and still weed out and separate from unnecessary fragments (the remains of tape, cellophane, metal staples) at the moment practically does not seem possible.
Waste paper sorting is mainly manual labor.
By dissolution is meant the cleaning of waste paper from glue and other impurities and the dissolution of cellulose fibers. Dissolution is divided into primary and secondary. Chopped waste paper is placed in pulpers working on the principle of a washing machine. The photo below shows some varieties and models of such devices, as well as a diagram of the device.
Dissolution is the dilution of waste paper with water to a state of porridge.
Some models of pulpers are equipped with traps that remove paper clips, sand, film from the mass. Such a mass is being obsolete and is already ready for the production of certain types of products, for example, low-grade cardboard, egg packaging.
Further, this mass, called pulp, is subjected to further processing, to obtain cleaner raw materials.
Re-dissolve the pulp to remove impurities, using special traps. It is also subjected to chemical and mechanical processing and cleaning. Heavy and large impurities are also removed using special sieves and overflow boxes, overflowing a mixture of which heavy fragments settle at the bottom.
Pulper for pulp dissolution
Further processing depends on what products are supposed to be produced; for this, the pulp can be subjected to such treatments: heating, grinding, bleaching, chemical cleaning of odor and microorganisms, the addition of wood pulp and coloring.
After these treatments, high-quality raw materials are obtained, suitable for the production of office paper for the printer.
Waste paper products
Further production is due to machines that are designed for a particular type of product. Pulp is poured into them and the production of recyclable materials begins. For example, for the production of paper, the pulp is fed into a special machine, which aligns and distributes, sets the desired shape, then the pulp is pressed and ironed by pressing, dried on drums, and then cellulose, which was once an unnecessary newspaper, finds a new life in a sheet of paper.
Ask questions in the comments below or by mail. Subscribe to the newsletter. Good luck to you, and good to your family!