The favorable emotional atmosphere of the lesson is a condition of its high efficiency without prejudice to the state of mental health of the teacher and student. The ability to create such an atmosphere is an important component of the teacher’s professional skills. It is known that the student’s attitude to the teacher is transferred to the subject taught by him. Hence the need to win the respect of children, to be an authoritative, interesting person in their eyes. This is not about flirting or conniving, but about real full authority.
Each teacher has his own methods of creating the atmosphere of a lesson: the style of communication with students, the methods of expressing exactingness and goodwill, the methods of including children in academic work, activating them, and methods for relieving stress during the lesson (emotional pauses, physical education, using music). These methods largely depend on the age characteristics of children, on the specifics of the class. For example, in elementary grades you can use elements of the game, competition, rely on a wealth of imaginative thinking, imagination, expectation of something unusual, mysterious.
One of the effective techniques for creating a favorable emotional atmosphere in the lesson is the teacher's communication style.
Pedagogical communication is a teacher’s communication with schoolchildren during the learning process, which creates the best conditions for the development of student motivation and the creative nature of learning activities, for the correct formation of the student’s personality, provides a favorable emotional learning climate, provides management of socio-psychological processes in the children's team and allows maximum use the personal characteristics of the teacher in the educational process.
The individual style of pedagogical communication, as shown by the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature, is considered as a variety of communication style also more thoroughly than other theoretical directions. So, for example, this phenomenon is presented to many researchers as a systematic study (multilevel and multicomponent), which has a compensatory mechanism and which is determined by the properties of personality.
The style of pedagogical communication refers to the individual typological features of the interaction of the teacher and students. The communicative abilities of the teacher, the prevailing nature of the relationship between the teacher and the pupils, the creative personality of the teacher, and the characteristics of the students find expression in it.
Today, the most popular is the three-component classification of leadership styles, proposed by K. Levin and automatically transferred to the reality of pedagogical communication (authoritarian, liberal, democratic style).
With an authoritarian (monologic) style of communication, the teacher solves all the questions concerning the life of both the class team and each student individually. Based on his own attitudes, he determines the position and goals of interaction, subjectively evaluates the results of activities. An authoritarian style of communication is implemented using dictatorship and guardianship tactics. The opposition of schoolchildren to the imperious pressure of the teacher most often leads to the emergence of stable conflict situations.
Teachers who adhere to this style of communication do not allow students to show independence and initiative. They, as a rule, do not understand students, are not adequate in their grades, based only on indicators of their academic performance. An authoritarian teacher focuses on the negative actions of the student, but does not take into account the motives of these actions.
External indicators of the success of the activities of authoritarian teachers (academic performance, discipline in the lesson, etc.) are most often positive, but the socio-psychological atmosphere in such classes is usually unsuccessful.
The liberal (conniving, anarchist, conformal) style of communication is characterized by the teacher’s desire to be minimally involved in the activity, which is explained by the removal of responsibility for its results. Such educators formally fulfill their functional duties, limited only to teaching. The conniving style of communication presupposes a non-intervention tactic based on indifference and disinterest in the problems of both the school and the students. A consequence of such tactics is the lack of control over the activities of students and the dynamics of their personality development. Academic performance and discipline in the classes of such educators are usually unsatisfactory.
The common features of conniving and authoritarian communication styles, despite their apparent opposite, are distant relationships, lack of trust, obvious isolation, estrangement, and demonstrative emphasis on one's dominant position.
An alternative to these communication styles is the dialogical style of participants in pedagogical interaction, often called democratic. With this style of communication, the teacher is focused on enhancing the role of the student in interaction, on attracting everyone to the solution of common affairs.
For teachers who adhere to this style, they are characterized by: an active-positive attitude towards students, an adequate assessment of their capabilities, successes and failures, they are characterized by a deep understanding of the student, the goals and motives of his behavior, the ability to predict the development of the student’s personality [1, p.99].
In terms of external indicators of their activities, teachers of a democratic style of communication are inferior to their authoritarian colleagues, but the socio-psychological climate in their classes is always more prosperous.
In real pedagogical practice, most often there are “mixed” communication styles. The teacher cannot absolutely exclude from his arsenal some private methods of an authoritarian style of communication. They are sometimes quite effective, especially when working with classes and individual students with a low level of socio-psychological and personal development.
Famous psychologist V.A. Kan-Kalik identified the following styles of pedagogical communication:
Communication based on enthusiasm for joint activities.
Communication based on friendly location.
Communication is superiority [4, p.201].
The most fruitful communication based on enthusiasm for joint activities. It involves community, joint interest, co-creation. The main thing for this style is the unity of a high level of competence of the teacher and his moral principles.
Effective and the style of pedagogical communication based on friendly location. It manifests itself in a sincere interest in the personality of the pupil, in the team, in the desire to understand the motives of the child’s activities and behavior, in the openness of contacts. This style stimulates the enthusiasm for joint creative activity, fruitful relations between the teacher and the pupils, but in this style the measure, “the expediency of friendliness” is important.
The communication-distance style is widespread in the system of relations between teachers and students in teaching and upbringing. Novice educators often use this style to assert themselves in the student community. The distance must exist, it is necessary, since the teacher and pupils occupy different social positions. The more natural for the pupil the leading role of the teacher, the more organic and natural for him the distance in relations with the teacher. Negative communication styles are also highlighted. These include:
- a) communication-intimidation, which is based on strict regulation of activity, on unquestioning obedience, fear, dictate, orientation of children on what cannot be done, in this style there can be no joint enthusiasm for activity, there can be no co-creation,
- b) communication-flirting, based on the desire to please the pupils, to gain credibility (but it will be cheap, false), young teachers choose this style of communication due to the lack of professional experience, the experience of communicative culture,
- c) communication-superiority is characterized by the teacher’s desire to rise above the pupils, he is absorbed in himself, he does not feel the students, has little interest in his relations with them, and is removed from children.
Negative communication styles are focused on subject-object relations, i.e. they prevail the position of the teacher, considering the pupils as an object of influence.
Today we will talk about the importance and necessity of maintaining a positive psychological atmosphere during the educational process.
1. What is the psychological atmosphere in the lesson? How do we determine this for ourselves?
- This is such an atmosphere that encourages students to learn.
- This is an atmosphere of cooperation between students and teachers.
- This is an atmosphere of confrontation (conflict) between students and teachers.
- Friendly atmosphere when you want to communicate with children.
- An atmosphere of mutual trust and respect.
- The atmosphere of mutual bullying and humiliation.
- The atmosphere of reproaches and coercion.
- The atmosphere of emotional inclusion and mutual assistance. Etc.
The psychological atmosphere indicates the effective or ineffective interaction of the participants in the educational process, which depends both on the competence of the teacher and on the emotional well-being of the children’s team.
2. On what grounds we can judge: a favorable or unfavorable atmosphere in the lesson:
- What do we experience on an emotional level (when an unfavorable atmosphere is irritation, excitement, despair, anger, a desire to run away, when a favorable atmosphere is calm, gratitude for attention and understanding, inspiration).
- How do we feel physically (when everything is good in the lesson - nothing hurts, we are in good shape, when the atmosphere is unfavorable - the head hurts, fatigue appears, etc.)
- How do we behave (verbally and nonverbally) (when the atmosphere is unfavorable - we raise our voice, reproach, demand, scold, we can say a hurt word to the student, kick the student out of the class, knocking his fist on the table, frown, compress our jaws, cross our arms over our chests, we turn our back to the window or the blackboard, we can come up and pull the student by the sleeve, turn him around, tap the table with his pointer). What do we feel like? (So that the lesson ends soon.) What is the desire of the children? (So that the lesson ends soon.)
The rhetorical question: how often does this happen?
- What can such an atmosphere lead to if it repeats itself? To the stressful state of both the teacher and the students.
- We highlight the factors that violate the favorable atmosphere in the classroom and lead to stress of students:
A) When it is not clear to the students what results the teacher expects from them.
B) Inadequate use or underestimation of the capabilities of children when they are entrusted with tasks that are less than ability in complexity.
B) Overload when the work is too complicated or sets too many tasks for students.
D) The lack of resources or data for use in the work, that is, the lack of visual materials, equipment (physical education or labor), tools (chemistry, physics, biology), lack of credibility, scarcity of material, uniform and uninteresting forms of material presentation.
E) Non-participation when children have no opportunity to express their opinion.
- How we behave when the classroom atmosphere is favorable: we smile, gestures are calm, we are facing the children, we are interested in this lesson, we often praise successful children, cheer less successful ones. What desire do we feel? (Desire to teach.) What is the desire of the children? (Desire to learn.)
The rhetorical question: how often does this happen?
3. What is the relationship between teacher and students effective atmosphere in the classroom?
- Relations of partnership, cooperation, co-creation.
4. What creative techniques — those that improve relationships — do we use?
- The manifestation of kindness, attention, care, request, encouragement, approval, praise, trust, advancement of a person, forgiveness, manifestation of grief, commission of an important matter, etc.
5. What principles should a teacher follow in order to create the right atmosphere in the classroom?
The psychologist Karl Rogers, one of the founders of the humanistic trend in modern psychology, identifies the following principles:
1. From the very beginning and throughout the educational process, the teacher must demonstrate to the children his full confidence in them.
2. It should help students formulate and clarify the goals and objectives facing both the class and each student individually.
3. The teacher should act as a source of diverse experience to which the student can always turn for help.
4. He must develop in himself the ability to feel the emotional mood of the children's team and accept it.
5. He must be an active participant in the interaction.
6. He must be able to express his feelings in the group.
7. He should strive to achieve empathy (understand the feelings and experiences of each student).
8. Finally, he must know himself well in order to maintain a favorable psychological atmosphere, be able to monitor his conditions and adjust his actions in time.