The hero of this conversation is a white American named “George” (for security reasons, his real name is not indicated), who became a Sunni Muslim at the age of 14, studied at the Imam’s madrasah, studied the Koran (some of which he memorized), Arabic, Islamic theology, history, "hadiths" (a legend about the sayings and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) and Islamic law. After 20 years, he left Islam and consciously accepted Orthodoxy.
In conversation with the host of the program on "AncientFaithRadio"It was about the theology of Islam, the widespread misconceptions of Muslims about Christianity, the differences between Orthodox Islam and the" Nation of Islam "(the religious-nationalist radical organization of African Americans in the USA), about slavery and the attitude of Islam towards it, about jihad. And of course, about George’s unusual path to Orthodoxy.
“I was looking for discipline”
– Recently, Islam is one of the main topics of news and media reports. Today we are talking with former Muslim George, who recently became an Orthodox Christian (we spoke with his confessor, and he confirmed the whole story of George).George, before the interview you told me that as a teenager you began to study various religious and philosophical teachings.
- Yes, I was interested in some eastern spiritual traditions - Buddhism and Hinduism. I also read a little about philosophy, the Stoic school was especially fascinating to me. Interest in Buddhism and Hinduism quickly disappeared, and although at the age of 12–13 I was quite receptive to new ideas, these two religious systems seemed to me too strange. I felt that there was no truth either in Hinduism with its polytheism, or in Buddhism with its denial of God. I believed that God exists and He is one.
– Why are you not interested in Christianity?
Jumping televangelists were pushing away, assuring viewers that they could “buy” the path to the Kingdom of Heaven
- I did not see anything of value in those Christian movements that were available to me, whether they were jumping and screaming televangelists who assured the audience that they could “buy” a path to the Kingdom of Heaven, or the constant hypocrisy and complacency of people I met every day. I have not seen Christianity that could offer something substantial. Of course, then I misunderstood Christian theology. The idea of the Holy Trinity seemed too confusing, and the Western understanding of the crucifixion of the Savior and His redemption of mankind seemed like tricks, so that people would not pay special attention to their shortcomings and make no effort to correct their lives.
– What particularly attracted you to Islam?
- Islam offered what I was just looking for - discipline. And more or less understandable theology ... It seemed that Islam historically did not have such a baggage as Christianity: slavery, racism, fanaticism, crusades, the Inquisition and intolerance towards all - all that that Christians have been accused of for centuries. In a spiritual sense, Islam offered worship to God, in which your voice, mind and body are involved, "and not just waving your arms in the air with screams and singing." Finally, in Islam there is a practice called dhikr, which translates as “remembrance,” “retention in the mind.” Dhikr practitioners try to clear their mind of everything and think only of God. They repeatedly repeat short prayers designed to help them be in the presence of God. But, of course, in the center of Islam is prayer, that is, a prayer performed five times a day, which is mandatory for every Muslim.
Islam and slavery
- Mostly they were African-Americans, as well as immigrants from the Middle East and Asia.
– According to a survey made several years ago, 59% of US converts to Islam are African-Americans. Why do you think so many African Americans convert to Islam?
Islam for African Americans - a way to get rid of the imposed Eurocentrism
- Some reasons for the conversion of African Americans to Islam are similar to those for which I and many non-African Americans once converted to this religion. I have already said this. But African American communities have a more unique situation. Based on my own experience, conversations with people and literature I can say that the conversion of many African Americans to Islam is seen as an attempt to return to their culture, which they lost when their ancestors were captured, enslaved and taken to the Western Hemisphere and as a result devoid of primordial traditions and identity. This is a way to get rid of the imposed Eurocentrism. Christianity has become synonymous with the oppression and oppression experienced by African Americans in the West.
– But it was the Islamic slave traders who went to Africa, captured the Africans for sale to the Europeans ... Is that not so?
- Yes, the Islamic slave trade began in the 7th century with the rise of the Islamic empire and continued in some places until the 20th century, for example, in Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, where cases of human trafficking are still recorded. The Arab Islamic slave trade covered vast territories, including East and West Africa south of the Sahara (the main supplier), Central Asia, the Mediterranean, and even Eastern Europe. The slave trade spread to northern lands such as the British Isles and Iceland. America at the dawn of its existence fell victim to the Muslim slave traders from the so-called Barbarian kingdoms - independent Islamic states that existed along the coast of North Africa.
I would like to say that Islamic law does not allow slavery of Muslims born free. Only Muslims born as slaves and captured non-Muslims are allowed to take. This explains the fact that most of the slaves were residents of territories bordering Islamic empires, including, of course, Christians.
– Today we see ISIS and other radical groups capturing, enslaving, selling women and more ... Are such practices permitted in the Qur'an and hadiths?
- Yes. They are prescribed in a certain way by the Qur'an and Hadith. ISIS and other groups view their atrocities as a holy war. All non-Muslim women captured by them become their property, even if they are married women. The Qur'an calls such captives the words "what your right hand possesses." In the verse (verse) of the fourth Surah we read: “Married women are forbidden to you, except for captives, who have taken possession of your right hand, taken prisoner during the war with the infidels.” I quoted part of a lengthy passage about women with whom a Muslim is allowed to have sexual intercourse.
There is also a quotation from Sura 33 ayah 50, which says on behalf of Allah himself: “O Prophet! We have made it permissible for you your wives, whom you paid their remuneration, and [slaves], which your right hand possessed. " I can give many more examples, but I think you already see how the holy books of Islam approve of atrocities.
Of course, a Muslim can argue with me and say that these verses relate only to the historical events of the time of Muhammad. But the problem is that Islam views the Qur'an as the unchanging and eternal word of Allah. Therefore, if the whole Quran is absolutely perfect, being the infallible word of Allah directly dictated to Muhammad, then how can it be applied only to a certain event or moment?
– This is very interesting, especially in the light of the transition of many African Americans to Islam in our time. After all, before Islam, the history of Christianity was closely linked, including with Africa.
It is a crime that the rich history of Christianity in Africa was forgotten by Western churches - and intentionally forgotten
- Yes. Christianity has been deeply rooted in Africa since the very beginning of church history. And in the Gospel of Matthew, we find that the Lord Himself, with His Most Pure Mother and righteous Joseph, fled to Egypt. We also find the Ethiopian whom the Apostle Philip meets, as stated in the book of Acts. Alexandria is one of the oldest Patriarchates. We have such great holy churches as Athanasius of Alexandria, Anthony the Great, Moses Murin, Mary of Egypt, Blessed Augustine and many others. In my opinion, it is a crime that the rich history of Christianity in Africa has been forgotten, and I dare to say that it is deliberately discarded by Christians of the Western churches.
– What are the significant differences between the teachings of the “Nation of Islam” and Luis Farrahan, the current leader of this organization, and “orthodox Islam”?
- There are a lot of differences. But the most stunning thing is this: the “Nation of Islam” believes that the black man is divine, and the white man is genetically created by the mad scientist Yakub (the Arabic form of the name “Jacob”), who was supposedly born in Mecca and created a pale devil race “through the scientific experiment on the Greek island of Patmos. " Yakub allegedly did this after quarreling with God. This provision alone is enough to clearly understand that the ideas of the “Nation of Islam” will not be recognized by orthodox Islam.
– So, the followers of the “Nation of Islam” are not recognized as members of orthodox Islam?
“I tried to be pious”
– Returning to your story: what did it take you to officially become a Muslim at age 14?
“It is very simple: it required the proclamation of shahada, a formula setting out two main tenets of Islam:“ There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. ”
– And is that all that needs to be repeated in the presence of imams and other witnesses?
- It was necessary at least to have witnessed two adult Muslim men.
– Did other white Muslim converts go to the mosque with you?
- Yes, there were several. One of them is now the co-founder of one national Islamic organization, about which much has been written in the press in recent years. However, at that time I was some kind of unusual occurrence for them, taking into account my very young age and the fact that no Muslim missionary work preceded my conversion to Islam. Among the white Muslim converts, there seemed to be more women. According to my observations, marriages with Islamic men who emigrated from other countries contributed to this.
– And from the age of 14 you began to try to live the pious life of a Muslim. How strictly did you follow the rules, and what were your practices?
“I did not think of myself as a godly one.” You correctly said: I tried to be pious. He wanted to get closer to God. It can be said, I was much more strict towards myself than the average Muslim born in this faith. This is a common occurrence among people who have converted to faith in which they have not been brought up - at least for some time they will be especially zealous.
I wanted to completely immerse in Islam. He studied everything he could. Therefore, at the age of 18, he left his hometown and moved to another state to study at Islamic madrassas (seminaries). He stayed there for three years. He studied Arabic grammar, the Qur'an, hadith, Islamic law and history. He also prayed five times a day. He also read additional prayers, which, although encouraged, were not obligatory. I fasted during the month of Ramadan and fasted throughout the year in addition to Ramadan. He complied with all the prescriptions in food, in self-cleaning, refrained from extramarital sex, and even tried not to greet the woman by the hand, not to look her in the face if it was not my relative.
Most of a Muslim’s life is observing the Sunnah. The Sunnah tells about the deeds of Muhammad and spells out every aspect of the Muslim’s life: how to eat, sleep, drink, dress, talk, use the toilet, even how to punish his wife to a married man. I tried with all my heart to observe everything that I could.
How Christian heresies influenced Islam
– George, I think many Christians will agree that the Koran and Islam as a whole misinterpret Orthodox Christianity. What currents of heretical, non-Orthodox Christianity did Muhammad come across in his life and where did he get these ideas from?
- Most Muslims tend to unite everyone who calls themselves Christians - even sectarians such as Mormons and Jehovah's Witnesses - into a single homogeneous group. Pre-Islamic Arabia, especially the area where Muhammad was born, known as Hijaz, was predominantly pagan. But Christian minorities lived in this region. In the biography of Muhammad, there are several cases of his meetings with Christians. It is hard to say how Orthodox their beliefs were. But judging by the Qur'an, hadiths and their erroneous understanding of Christianity, it can be assumed that at least some of these Christians were heretics.
In his youth, Muhammad accompanied his uncle named Abu Talib to Bosra (Syria). There, Muhammad met a Christian monk named Bahira. This Bahira noticed that wherever Muhammad went, a cloud covered him. The monk called Muhammad to him and told him that God had chosen him as the last prophet.
We can say that Muhammad was influenced by Arianism with its denial of deity in Christ
Islamic sources claim that Bahira had copies of the “original gospel, free from errors and additions,” which allegedly contained prophecies about the arrival of Muhammad. Bahira, according to some sources, was associated with another monk, the name of Sergius, who, according to some sources, was a Nestorian, and according to others - an Arian. Based on my knowledge of Arianism and Nestorianism, I would say that Muhammad was influenced by Arianism with its denial of deity in Christ - Muslims relate to the Savior in the same way.
From other stories about Muhammad, we learn that when he received the first revelation in the cave allegedly from the angel Jabrail, he was embarrassed and fearful, so his first wife Khadija led him to his cousin. Her cousin was called Varaka ibn Nawf, he was a Christian, and according to some information - a Nestorian priest. When Muhammad told him what happened to him, Varaka replied that he (Muhammad) was the last prophet predicted in the Scriptures. There is other evidence of Muhammad’s meetings with Christians, but they all have the same theme: Christians allegedly confirm that Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet, as if it was predicted, but since Christians and Jews changed the texts of their Scriptures, then the prophecies about the arrival of Muhammad were deleted or changed.
– According to the Muslims ...
Some verses of the Qur'an were directly taken from the apocrypha
- Yes, according to Muslims. According to another story, the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (610–641) recognizes Muhammad as a true long-awaited prophet and says that all Christians must accept Islam. Interestingly, some of the verses of the Qur'an were directly taken from the apocrypha. One obvious example is an excerpt from the so-called “Gospel of childhood” of the Apostle Thomas, which states that when Jesus was a youth, He made clay birds, breathed life into them and they began to make noise and fly. Now compare this story with the ayah 110 of the fifth Surah of the Quran: “Then Allah will say:“ Isa, remember the blessings that I gave you and your mother: I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit, you spoke to people from the cradle [when other children are not yet talking ], and in my mature years I had indescribable eloquence, I taught you writing, wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel, from clay you sculpted the likeness of a bird, breathed life into it, and it immediately became a living bird with My permission. ”
– This is very similar to the apocryphal text of Thomas. Good point. In preparation for our conversation, among the heretical movements of the 4th century, I found an Arab sect called Collyridians who worshiped the Virgin Mary as a goddess. Some Muslims believe that the Qur'an objects to this particular sect, because the Qur'an understands the Trinity as the Father, Mary, and the Son.
- Right! There is one interesting tradition, most likely related to the Collyridians. A few years before the death of Muhammad, when he returned victorious to Mecca (the famous “Conquest of Mecca”), he first cleaned the Kaaba (the most important sanctuary of Islam in Mecca) from hundreds of idols found inside and out. According to legend, Muhammad entered the Kaaba and ordered to throw out all the idols from it and destroy all the images, but leave the image of Christ with the Virgin, surrounded by angels. Later, he reluctantly removed this image. So the presence of a picture of Christ with the Virgin in a pagan temple of that time may well indicate the presence of a heretical group like Collyridian.
– It turns out that Muhammad mistakenly believed that Christians worship three Gods: God the Father, Mother Mary and the Son Jesus, and not one God in three persons? Of course, Orthodox Christianity rejects this idea of triteism, that is, that God is threefold in essence (the three faces of the Holy Trinity are three Gods).
- Yes, I would say that it is. One of the biographies of Muhammad mentions the arrival of a delegation of Arab Christians who came to speak with him. Рассказчик сообщает, что христиане спорили о природе Христа, и затем пишет: «Они утверждают, что Он третий из Трех, поскольку Бог говорит: “Мы сотворили, Мы повелели, Мы создали и Мы постановили”, и они говорят: “Если бы Он был Един, то сказал бы: Я сотворил, Я создал и так далее”, но Он есть Он, то есть Бог, Иисус и Мария».
В Коране аят 73 пятой Суры как раз связан с этим утверждением. Он звучит так: «Поистине, впали в неверие те, кто сказал: “Аллах (Бог) – третий из трех”».
– Подобным же образом (поправьте меня, если я ошибаюсь) Коран отвергает отцовство Бога-Отца и сыновство Иисуса в христианском их понимании. Muslims believe that, according to the faith of Christians, God the Father enters into a physical relationship with Mary for the birth of God the Son. Of course, this extreme fallacy has nothing to do with Christian teaching.
- Yes it is. Regarding this, ayah 88 of the 19th Surah of the Qur'an says: “And they said [some]:“ The Most Merciful has a child. ”
Muhammad understood the words “Son of God” purely humanly
This misunderstanding arose because of the belief of the Arabian polytheists that the angels and even their idols appeared due to some physical contact of God. Therefore, I think Muhammad could understand the term "Son of God" purely humanly, through the concept of sexual reproduction. Consequently, many Muslims began to think that Christians believe in the conception of the Son from the Father in a human way. Of course, this is an absolutely ridiculous and blasphemous understanding.
– Yes, Muslims also deny that Christ was crucified. The Koran does not say anywhere about the atoning sacrifice of Christ, about His sufferings for the salvation of mankind. One of the best quotes confirming this is Sura 4, verses 157–159: “The wrath of Allah fell upon them for their lies: they said that they allegedly killed Isa, the son of Maryam, the messenger of Allah. But he was not killed by them and was not crucified, as they intended. All this only seemed to them. They thought they had killed and crucified the prophet himself. In fact, they killed and crucified another, similar to Isa. Then they themselves argued: Isa or the other was killed. They are all in doubt about this. They have no knowledge about this, but only speculations. They were not sure what killed him. They did not kill him. Allah lifted Isa to Himself and saved him from enemies. He was not crucified and was not killed. Indeed, Allah Almighty, Great and wise in His deeds! And, truly, there is no one among the people of the Scripture who did not understand the truth about Isa before his death - that he was a servant of Allah and His messenger. They believed in him, but late - time had already passed. And on Judgment Day, Isa will testify against them that he is a servant of Allah and His messenger and that he transmitted the Message of his Lord. "
- Yes, you are absolutely right! I can also add that, according to some Islamic commentators, God changed the appearance of Judas Iscariot to look like Christ. Thus, in their opinion, it was not Christ who was crucified, but Judas ...
The Qur'an does not speak of the atonement and saving sacrifice of Christ anywhere, because Islam denies that Jesus is the Son of God. The followers of Islam do not recognize the Deity of Christ, do not recognize the purpose of His incarnation and our salvation through Him. The whole formula of salvation in Islam is reduced, by and large, to the proclamation of shahada ("There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His prophet") and good deeds.
Teaching of non-love
– As we know, Christianity is based on love. In the conversation before our interview, you mentioned that in Islam there is no teaching about the love and mercy of God for humanity or the unity of God with man. On the contrary, the relationship of man and God can be described as the relationship of a slave and a master. Please tell us more about this.
- In order to understand how a Muslim or Muslim will see her relationship with God, it is important to know what the purpose of creating a person in Islam is.
In verse 56 of Surah 51 of the Qur'an it says: “I did not create genies (invisible spirits) and people so that they would bring me any benefit, but only so that they worship Me. But worship benefits them. ” A verse 7 of Sura 11 says: "He is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days when His Throne was on the water in order to experience whose deeds will be better."
I think these two verses generally demonstrate how Islam understands what man was created for. The first is to fulfill what God needs: to be worshiped in accordance with Islam, and the second is to participate in a kind of competition: who will do more good deeds. These two thoughts are often repeated in the Qur'an and Hadith. Thus, a person is obliged to worship God and thereby pacify Him, and also to prove that he is worthy of God's mercy: if he proves, he will be rewarded. This is the goal of human life. All this strongly contrasts with how the goal of creation and human life is understood in Orthodox Christian teaching, according to which a person is called to fellowship and unity with God, to be a partaker of divine love and become a god by grace.
– You also told me that you would describe God in Islam, that is, Allah, as a tyrant.
- Yes. It is difficult to explain in a short time, but I will try. According to the Qur'an, Allah leads in a direct way, whomever he wishes, and whom he wants, he leads astray (this phrase is repeated countless times). Now I will give one famous quotation of the words of Muhammad: “One person asked:“ Oh, the Messenger of Allah, is it possible to distinguish the inhabitants of paradise from the inhabitants of fire? ”The Prophet said:“ Yes. ” The man asked: “So for what do people try to do good deeds?” The Prophet replied: “Everyone will do what he was created for (or: what was facilitated for him)”.
Another passage is devoted to how a fetus is formed in the womb of its mother. “42 days after a drop of seed is in the womb, Allah sends an angel to her, which gives her a preliminary appearance and creates hearing, vision, skin, flesh and bones in the fetus, and then says:“ Oh my Lord, boy or a girl? ”- and your Lord decides as he wishes, and the angel writes. Then the angel asks: “Oh my Lord, what will be the term of his life?” - and your Lord says that he will, and the angel writes down. Then the angel asks: “O my Lord, what will be his inheritance (heaven or hell)?” - and your Lord decides as he wishes, and the angel records. And then the angel leaves with a scroll in his hand, adding nothing to this and not reducing anything. "
I think the fatalistic aspect of Islam is visible from these two quotes. Surah 7, ayah 179 of the Qur'an says: “We have created many jinn and people who will go to hell on the Day of Judgment.” We see that among the people created by God, many are specially made for hell. And this is repeated in the Qur'an many times. “Fear the Fire, the kindling of which is people and stones.” From all the above, we can conclude that in Islam we are not dealing with a just God. Instead, we are taught that the Creator designed everything as a mechanism where no one, including God Himself, can deviate from a precisely defined program.
Everything is subject to fate, and to such an extent that the cases that we perceive as the result of our free will, in fact, were registered for us. According to Islam, mankind is given the illusion that it has free will, although in fact there is no free will. Therefore, any judgment about the love and mercy of such a God can be considered insignificant and even ignored.
– What you just talked about, by the way, echoes the teachings of Jean Calvin on predestination.You also told me that in Islam, the ideas of love and mercy are very different from what we find in Orthodoxy. Can you clarify this for us?
- One of these differences can be found by asking any Christian who is familiar with the Holy Scriptures: Does God love sinners and non-Christians? The answer will be: “Of course, yes.” A Christian can quote many quotes from the New Testament, for example: “But God proves His love for us by the fact that Christ died for us when we were still sinners” (Rom. 5: 8). And, of course, these words: “I give you a new commandment, that you love one another, just as I loved you, so you love one another. By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love among one another ”(John 13: 34–35).
Unfortunately, over the centuries and to this day, the gospel covenants of love are not realized by many Christians, for which we, of course, will be responsible. But now I'm talking about the difference between the sacred texts of Christianity and Islam.
In sura 2, ayah 276 of the Qur'an it is said: “Allah does not love all ungrateful (or unbelieving) sinners.” And here is Sura 3, ayah 32: "Say:" Obey Allah and the Messenger. " If they turn away, then Allah does not love unbelievers. " And here is the previous verse of the same sura: “Say:“ If you love Allah, then follow me, and then Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. ” We see that, according to the Scriptures, love in Christianity is real, unconditional, truly divine love, which any average Muslim would laugh at (and I laughed at the time). In Islam, love is conditional, conditioned. In Islam, Allah has 99 names, or properties, and only one of them sounds like "loving." But in the Bible, through the Holy Spirit, we know that God is love, that He created us only by His limitless love, redeemed us through His Son and gave us the opportunity by grace to be His children and call Him His Father.
"Islam limits God"
– Yes, in Islam and Christianity we observe completely different spirituality and character. George, is it fair to say that in Islam you still did not have experience and life in the faith, but only following the rules of prayer, fasting, Islamic law and just obedience?
- Yes, I completely agree with this statement. In Islam there is a trend called Sufism, which contains the doctrine of the unity of man with God, but the ideas of Sufism in relation to traditional Islam are considered at best controversial, and some even heretical and blasphemous.
Since in Islam there is no teaching about God dwelling in His creation through the Holy Spirit, it is impossible to know God in this religion. When the Qur'an says that God is close to His creation, this is implied metaphorically. A good example is a verse 16 of sura 50: “And we are closer to him (to man) than the cervical vein.”
This means that God is close to us through knowledge, but we are not talking about the real presence of God near His creation. Even the claim that “God is everywhere” is highly controversial throughout Islamic theology. It will be more accurate to say that in Islam, God is omnipresent by knowledge, and not by His essence, He is above the Throne of His essence.
– Were there any positive aspects of your life in Islam?
- Yes, I firmly believe that Islam gave me the direction in life that I needed so much. He gives this direction to many people today. It is unlikely that anyone will argue that it is bad if your life is built around faith in one God, around prayer, fasting and works of mercy. Especially when comparing this life with the alternative that the world around us offers - life without any knowledge of God and without high morality.
The problem in Islam, in my opinion, is that it inhibits the spiritual growth of a person. I believe that without the recognition, faith and confession of the true God, who revealed Himself in the Holy Trinity, a Muslim involuntarily restricts God and creates an idol, and this restriction is reflected in the worldview of a person, on his vision of his neighbors. I think that how a person sees God affects his life and understanding of the world.
– Looking back on your life in Islam, can you say that this life was devoid of the experienced knowledge of God?
“There was very little“ experienced ”knowledge of God. He believed that God exists, that I should worship Him, but, as mentioned above, the Islamic idea of God does not allow a person to know Him.
The God of Israel did not fully reveal Himself to people and was not fully cognizable by people. But everything changed with the incarnation of the Word of God - our Lord Jesus Christ, and this was the greatest event in history and a huge step forward for humanity. But six centuries passed, and Mohammed appears, who (in a sense) turns the tide of history by denying the incarnation of the Son of God and His saving ministry. In fact, Muhammad returned his followers back to the rule of law and robbed them of their knowledge of the truth about God revealed in the only begotten Son of God and the Holy Spirit.
– Before the conversation, you told me an interesting thing: observing the external requirements of Islam, inside you felt like a kind of “monster”. Tell us more.
- Oh yeah. In Islam, such great attention is paid to the observance of external rites that the need for spiritual development and growth is often ignored. The lack of spiritual growth affects the way we treat our neighbors. This happened to me, and I saw that the same thing happened with so many other people. I felt such deep complacency within myself that I observe all the external rites and laws of Islam. And this complacency grew into real Pharisaism. All this has reached such proportions that I began to look down not only at non-Muslims, but even at those who have loved and taken care of me all my life. As a result, I turned into a monster ...
– Summarizing, is it possible to conclude that Islam instills a sense of Pharisaism in believers when they begin to condemn and criticize other people instead of loving them?
Islam forms a system of relations: "we are them." Hence hatred and contempt for non-Muslims and even for fellow believers
“Yes, that is possible.” And I saw it more than once with my own eyes, it was with me. In sura 5 ayah 51 it says: “Believers, do not take Jews and Christians in Australia (a close friend, close one). Some of them are Australia for others. Which of you will take them as your patron, that of them. “The oppressors and tyrants [obvious sinners] Almighty does not set the right path.”
Such verses form a system of relations in believers: "we are them." Hence the zealous zeal glad